Cranberry - Northern Beauty
10 interesting cranberry facts
- Cranberry berries are almost 90% water.
- A good ripe cranberry bounces if it falls on a hard surface. Therefore, in English it is also sometimes called Bounceberry.
- Some cranberry bushes are over 100 years old.
- Cranberry juice helps against urinary tract infections by preventing E. coli from sticking to the walls of the bladder and removing them from the body with urine.
- The English name for cranberries (Cranberry) in translation means "crane berry." Long, thin cranberry flowers resemble the head and beak of a crane. In Russia, it was also called a freckle, a crane, a snowdrop.
- Native Americans rubbed cranberries into a paste and mixed with dried meat to extend its shelf life; this mixture was called pemmican.
- In 1912, cranberry sauce was first canned.
- The generic name of cranberries comes from the Greek words "oxis" - spicy, sour and "coccus" - spherical, i.e. literally "sour ball."
Cranberry (lat Oxycoccus) - a taxon of the Heather family, uniting evergreen creeping shrubs growing in swamps in the Northern Hemisphere.
Cranberry, or Common cranberries (Vaccinium oxycoccos) - Eurasian view.
Cranberries are popularly called the northern berry, the grapes of the North and the northern beauty. From time immemorial Cranberry is famous for its healing properties. Common cranberries (syn. Swamp cranberries, syn. Four-cranberry) is a graceful evergreen shrub of the Vereskov family. It is small, creeping, up to 80 cm long, with small, narrow, shiny, short-leaved leaves. On top they are green, leathery, and below - silver with a hairy coating. The plant blooms in May and June. The flowers are small, drooping, dark pink. Fruits - shiny, dark red spherical berries. They ripen at the end of August – September and remain on the plant until spring.
Cranberries are common in the northern and northwestern regions of the European part of Russia, Western Siberia, Kamchatka and Sakhalin. It grows in sphagnum bogs and marshy forests. In a number of areas, cranberries are introduced into the culture. For medical purposes, ripe berries are used, harvested after frost in autumn or early spring. Cranberries harvested in the spring are tastier than the autumn, they accumulate a lot of citric acid, but almost no vitamins remain. You can not store it for a long time. The berries have no smell; their taste is sour.
Berries harvested in September are hard, however, during storage they ripen and soften. Cranberries, harvested in late autumn, due to the presence of benzoic acid in it, are kept fresh for 1-2 years. If berries picked by frost are picked, then they need to be stored frozen. Berries soaked in weak sugar syrup do not deteriorate throughout the winter. Cranberries are even better stored in their own juice.
Cranberry berries contain benzoic, citric (it is most often 3%, for which the berries are called northern lemon), quinic, malic and other organic acids, vitamin C (up to 20 mg%), P, carotene, essential oil, sugars (from 2.3 to 5%), pigments, pectin and tannins, flavonoids, phenol carboxylic acids, salts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, also contains cobalt, iodine, iron, copper, manganese and other elements.
Cranberries are used for metabolic disorders, hypertension, colds, tonsillitis, bronchitis, rheumatism, malaria, various inflammatory diseases accompanied by high fever (helps reduce temperature, quenches thirst, it is good to use it with honey, as well as in the form of syrup and infusion) , with gastritis with low acidity, inflammation of the pancreas, diseases of the urinary tract and liver, anemia, atherosclerosis, headache, pulmonary tuberculosis, thrombophlebitis, glaucoma, as well as a restorative, vitamin remedy for the treatment of cancer patients, skin diseases, removal of age spots.
Cranberry leaves are used instead of tea. Cranberries are contraindicated in peptic ulcer of the stomach, duodenum and gastritis with high acidity.
Externally used pulp from cranberries for bedsores and to remove age spots. For skin diseases, wash with cranberry juice and use an ointment from juice. To prepare 20 ml of freshly squeezed juice is mixed with 40 g of lanolin and 40 g of petroleum jelly. The ointment is stored in the refrigerator.
Rinse the berries in boiled water, squeeze the juice into a glass dish, pour the squeezed cold boiled water (3-4 liters per 100 g), boil and strain. Add juice and sugar to the resulting broth to taste. Drink fruit drinks 2-3 glasses a day. Keep it in the refrigerator. Morse perfectly quenches thirst, tones, refreshes, enhances the therapeutic activity of antibiotics used in the treatment of kidney and bladder diseases, is useful for angina pectoris (has a weak vasodilating effect), rheumatism, flu, tonsillitis, malaria, is necessary for postoperative patients.
Cranberries are easy to grow and propagate. The soil should be acidic, for which it needs to be enriched with peat, sawdust and spruce needles. Before planting, the soil must be properly soaked with water. Cuttings are soaked in clean water for at least 2 hours and squeezed into the ground, leaving 2-3 cm above, at a distance of 20 cm from each other. If you plant ready-made bushes, pin long branches to the ground - they will not suffer from the wind and will take root quickly.
When planting in early spring, wait for the ground to thaw to a depth of 5 cm. The main thing is that the seedlings do not dry out in the first summer during rooting. So that moisture lingers in the soil, marsh moss is laid around, which, after watering the plants, remains wet for a long time. In autumn, the topsoil (we already remove moss by this time) is covered with coarse river sand by 5-10 cm. In the spring, it protects it from temperature changes, when it freezes at night from above and thaws during the day, which affects the rooting of cranberries. In addition, a light sand layer reflects the rays of the sun in the summer, preventing the soil from overheating. Therefore, moisture is stored longer. This is important until the cranberries have covered all the cultivated land.
Cranberries begin to bear fruit 2-3 years after planting. Overgrown with 1 m² of cranberry gives about a liter of berries.
Every year, in early spring, you need to cut off all the thin stems with scissors. If the plants do not develop well, you need to add 15 g of ammonium sulfate for every 1 m².
North American Cranberries (Cranberries, or American Cranberry) can be grown in a city apartment. To do this, stock up on acid peat with a high content of organic substances and volumetric capacity. For example, find a trough or box. The earth must be constantly moist, but without excess. Plant one bush - it will grow rapidly and fill the entire space. Until November, cranberries can grow on the balcony, and before freezing, bring it to a cool, dark place where the temperature does not exceed + 4 ° C. And in early February, put the plant in the light and water it abundantly. Berries ripen in late August.
Varieties of Cranberries
Among the few varieties that are so far, the maximum demand is derived from the USA almost half a century ago, Hawes, Early Black, Beckwith, Bennett, Centennial and others.
Where infection with viral infections and various rot are possible, Bequuit is grown. It has large berries with excellent taste and aroma, it is convenient to remove the berries, as they are formed on tall, straight stems. Harvested in late September - early October.
Bennett stands out among the varieties with good keeping quality. The berries are oval, late-ripening variety.
Hovez also belongs to the group of late-ripening. It has large dark red berries, famous for their excellent taste, high content of pectin substances and excellent keeping quality.
Of the early varieties, one of the most popular is Early Black. Berries are distinguished by a peculiar bell-shaped form, their color is dark red, in taste it is considered one of the best.
For processing or fast consumption, Centennial is recommended, which has many advantages, but is poorly preserved under normal conditions. Its berries are large, shaped like cherry, the color is red, there is a light pleasant aroma, the taste is quite high.
Less studied are varieties such as Steven, Champion, Wilcox and Searls. Choosing varieties, it is necessary to lay several cranberry plantations so that they pollinate with each other, which helps to increase productivity and improves the commercial quality of cranberries.
Since childhood, I remember the taste of cranberries! My grandmother always grew this healthy berry in the country, and my mother made it a delicious cranberry juice.