Daylily - smile of the sun
Daylilies are considered unpretentious hardy plants that do not require careful care. It is assumed that they can grow and bloom for many years, without requiring transplants, shelter for the winter. In recent years, interest in them has especially grown due to the fact that a flood of new, previously unknown varieties with simple or double flowers of various shapes and colors poured into Russia.
Hemerocallis is called red-faced, sometimes hemerokallis (Hemerokallis). The Latin name comes from the Greek words hemera - “day” and kallos - “beauty”, because each flower usually blooms only one day.
More than 50 thousand varieties of daylilies have already been created, one more interesting than the other. Of course, not all of them are available to our amateur gardeners. Usually the choice is limited by the fact that intermediary firms from Poland, Holland or Canada bring in. Lovers who have heard that daylilies grow almost like weeds have already managed to acquire the most spectacular plants and have begun to wait for a wonderful transformation of their flower beds.
However, the hopes of some enthusiasts were not destined to come true. Aliens from Western countries did not always turn out to be as undemanding as species daylilies familiar from childhood with yellow or orange flowers. Now, in the voices of customers at garden fairs, notes of disappointment are increasingly heard: in some gardeners, even 5-year-old plants have never bloomed, in others you can count the leaves on the fingers.
There are giant daylilies with a flower diameter of up to 38 cm and dwarf daylilies with a flower of only 2.2 cm. With such a spread, it is sometimes difficult to understand that we are talking about one species!
I must say that most often these claims are unfounded. There is no doubt that the plants do not bloom, but it is not daylilies that are to blame, but their inexperienced owners.
First of all, check if the landing site is sufficiently lit. Daylilies can grow in partial shade. But in the conditions of our climate, they fully bloom only in sunny areas. When shaded, the plants either refuse to bloom at all or form a small number of small flowers. Often daylily, which used to bloom beautifully, changes its habits, being under the canopy of an overgrown tree or a new building.
In luxurious corrugated daylily varieties, the perianth cannot fully open due to the lack of heat and light in our kpimatic zone.
Lileinics are able to survive in a variety of conditions. But only on loose, loamy, drained soil, rich in organic substances, they appear in all their splendor. Dry sandy or heavy clay soil must be improved by adding compost or well-rotted manure. Daylilies grown on fertile soil throw out more peduncles with numerous buds, their flowers are larger.
Low, wetlands, where water stagnates for a long time after rains, are absolutely unsuitable for planting varietal daylilies. In such places, you can try to plant plants on elevated ridges.
Daylilies are quite peaceful and get along well in mixborders with other perennials. But the proximity to trees and large shrubs is poorly reflected in their condition and flowering. Aggressive root system of high competitors quickly takes away moisture and nutrients from poor daylilies. Do not make your favorite flowers suffer, transplant away from the aggressors, and they will completely change.
Dark-colored varieties do not tolerate the hot midday sun.
In central Russia, planting or replanting daylilies in May or August is best. Resist the temptation to buy cheap specimens of daylilies at the end of September or in October. A late-planted plant may not have time to take root before frost. It will either die in the winter, or it will hurt for a long time next summer. There is no time for flowering.
Another common mistake is the excessive deepening of the growth point. Daylilies planted to a depth of more than 3 cm are known to bloom worse. If you really try and fill the soil layer with a thickness of 8-10 cm above the growth point, the bush may completely refuse to bloom. To avoid these troubles, it is advisable to check the planting depth every spring and, if necessary, to scoop up the earth from the bases of the bushes, and sometimes even raise or transplant the plants.
Daylilies do not require complicated care. But to get the maximum effect, you will have to provide them with minimal amenities.
The flowers will be larger if the plants get enough moisture. Watering is especially important in spring, early summer and during flowering. Instead of watering often and little by little, it is better to do it every week or even once every 2 weeks, but plentifully. Mulching with compost will help preserve moisture. The soil at a depth of 8-10 cm should be constantly slightly moist, then daylilies will feel comfortable and will please with good flowering.
Daylilies are suitable for almost all types of landscaping: for single and group plantings on lawns, near ponds, against shrubs and trees.
Do not forget to pick wilted daylily flowers. Plants that do not have to spend energy on seed formation will demonstrate their splendor in full.
Regular application of complex mineral fertilizers will help increase the number of buds on peduncles. Usually daylilies feed twice: in early spring and immediately after flowering. The first time it is not recommended to use fertilizers with a high nitrogen content. This can lead to increased leaf growth to the detriment of flowering. Top dressing after flowering plays an important role: it affects the laying of new buds and provides maximum effect in the coming year.
Many had to see large perennial clumps of daylilies. They continue to bloom, but their peduncles usually become lower and the flowers smaller. You can restore your former beauty by dividing the overgrown bushes in time. This is best done every 5-6 years. Delenki with 3-4 rosettes of leaves bloom in the next season.
Daylilies with lemon, golden yellow, orange and red flowers do not suffer from the scorching sun and rain.
Difficult choice of daylily variety
Often, beginning flower growers buy daylilies, focusing only on a beautiful picture. However, you need to try to get detailed information from the seller, since the cause of poor flowering is often just the wrong choice of variety. For example, evergreen varieties created in warm areas of the United States may not survive our winter. Surviving plants sometimes recover with difficulty only towards the end of summer, when it is too late to bloom.
It is better for gardeners without experience to start with sleeping daylilies, in which the foliage dies for the winter - they are reliable and hardy. If you have a choice between ordinary diploids and artificially obtained tetraploids, keep in mind that the latter differ in larger and brighter flowers, but, as a rule, grow more slowly.
Pay attention to the timing of flowering. Our summer is short, and some late-flowering varieties do not have time to bloom. It is better to purchase daylilies with an early, medium or, in extreme cases, medium late flowering period. The ability of these plants to maintain flowering, when after short rest periods the bushes are again covered with flowers, also depends on climatic conditions. In the middle zone of Russia, repeated flowering of many repairing varieties can be observed only in rare cases. Among the few exceptions is the Stella de Oro variety, which regularly blooms 2-3 times during the summer.
There are day, night and long-flowering daylily types. Daytime flowers bloom in the morning or at the beginning of the day and hold on until the evening - most of them. Nocturnal blossoms in the evening and wilt the next day in the afternoon.
When you evaluate the decorativeness of different varieties, remember that a small delenka with one rosette of leaves is unlikely to flourish in the next season after planting. You need to be patient and wait 2, or even 3 years.
- The best perennials for your garden - N. Chaplygina, candidate of biological sciences.